Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of managing the information that is used to support a company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to application programs and users making changes as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being damaged by unexpected failures. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve huge amounts of data for a broad range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data in accordance with an established pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of fields called attributes which provide information about data entities. The most popular type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to modify different sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is how the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models. It also may include virtual table that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.

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