Database Management Basics

Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It includes data storage and distribution to applications and users making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting corrupted due to unexpected failure. It is a component of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve huge amounts of data for a variety of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of tables that store data according to a particular pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most widely used type of database today. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of certain sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data in order to improve performance.

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